The Indian elephant is distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Three subspecies are recognized—E. m. maximus from Sri Lanka, E. m. indicus from mainland Asia and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra. The Asian elephant is the largest living land animal in Asia. Indian elephant has been listed as Endangered as the population has declined by at least 50 percent over the last 60 years. It is primarily threatened by loss of habitat, habitat degradation, fragmentation and poaching. Female captive elephants have lived beyond 60 years when kept in semi-natural surroundings, such as forest camps. In zoos, Indian elephants die at a much younger age; captive populations are declining due to a low birth and high death rate.